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The Essential Guide to BEC (Business Email Compromise) Attacks

Learn everything about BEC attacks to protect your brand and customers. Discover what Business Email Compromise (BEC) is and how to protect yourself.

CEO fraud, whaling, and phishing scams are all examples of Business Email Compromise (BEC) attacks. BEC attacks can hinder your business, destroy your brand’s reputation, and hurt your customers.

Bad actors know email can be a powerful and sensitive channel, and they look to exploit it whenever possible. It’s low-hanging fruit for them, and if you’re vulnerable, they will attack.

It’s a matter of when, not if.

Fortunately, you’re not at the whim of cybercriminals. You can protect your business from Business Email Compromise and other forms of cyberattacks. Below, we’ll walk you through everything you need about BEC attacks to protect your brand and customers.

What is business email compromise (BEC)?

BEC is a type of scam where cybercriminals impersonate trusted parties, such as the CEO, business partners, or other executives in a company. The goal is to try and defraud companies of important assets by successfully tricking email recipients into handing over sensitive information and/or data.

BEC attacks typically target businesses, government agencies, or organizations that handle substantial funds or sensitive information.

Like other types of phishing attacks, BEC relies heavily on social engineering. Most times, you won’t even find malicious links or attachments. This renders BEC attacks incredibly difficult to detect with the traditional email protection tools you have.

How do cybercriminals launch BEC attacks?

Attackers typically impersonate a trusted individual or entity, such as a high-ranking executive, business partner, or vendor. They craft impressively deceptive emails to appear legitimate, using techniques like email spoofing, social engineering, or spear-phishing.

They aim to convince the recipient to take specific actions that benefit the attacker, such as making wire transfers, sharing sensitive information, or initiating fraudulent transactions.

BEC attacks often exploit human vulnerabilities rather than relying solely on technical vulnerabilities in computer systems. The attackers may research their targets, gather information from publicly available sources, or even compromise email accounts to gain insights into ongoing business operations and relationships.

Why do bad actors use BEC attacks?

These scams are often financially motivated, with attackers asking you to do an urgent wire transfer. It’s also common for attackers to pose as the CEO or vendor and ask personnel with financial access to re-route a wire transfer to a fraudulent bank account. If you have foreign suppliers, this scenario might be even more common.

Although usually there’s some financial transaction involved, attackers might also use BEC to retrieve sensitive data that they can use in another attack or sell on the dark web.

For example, cybercriminals might aim for your login credentials instead so they can take over your accounts and use them in a later attack.

Additionally, sensitive information, such as Personal Identifiable Information (PII), is also a tangible good to attackers. They can often sell this information to buying parties.

To see if you’re leaving your domain open to these types of attacks, check out our free domain checker. You’ll be able to download a report on the protection status of your domain and take the necessary steps to correct it.

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The massive cost of BEC to businesses

In 2023, the FBI determined BEC is the costliest cyber attack. 

This annual FBI report also shares that there were 277,918 BEC international and domestic incidents recorded, with an adjusted loss of approximately $50 billion.

“The growing number of attacks and reported losses indicate that these bad actors are not slowing down. Focusing on encrypting data, halting impersonations, and multi-factor authentication have proven to be highly effective in this environment.

Outcomes show that implementing DMARC is one of the highest ROI solutions available. Just make sure to insist on enforcement (activation) and that the process is automated – otherwise DMARC can be daunting.”

Alexander Garcia-Tobar, CEO of Valimail

Email account compromise vs. BEC

Email Account Compromise (EAC) involves advanced techniques that hackers use to gain unauthorized access to a legitimate email account.

Often, EAC is thought to be synonymous with BEC. A considerable portion of BEC attacks is launched from compromised email addresses, which might be where the confusion stems from.

That said, a BEC attack doesn’t have to be done from a compromised account. Sending emails from a legitimate address adds another layer of authenticity.

However, attackers must first infiltrate the email, which requires deep technical knowledge and more resources than hackers may be willing to exert.

BEC itself doesn’t require hackers to have such expertise. Resources are usually spent more on the research portion of the attack. Plus, there are easier techniques to gain trust from a target, like email spoofing and lookalike domains.

Email spoofing

SMTP, the protocol used to send emails, doesn’t have authentication protocols built into it. To do this, email service providers usually do authentication checks by checking the email’s:

These protocols will help you weed out spoofed emails. Without these authentication protocols, or unless you pay careful attention to the sender details, attackers can fake the display name and sender address of incoming email messages.

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Lookalike domains

Dozens of domains look like yours; it’s hard to track them all. Attackers take this opportunity to buy these lookalikes and appear legitimate to unsuspecting users. For example, if your domain is called

the attacker might purchase:

This is an easily missable detail that helps them pull off a successful BEC attack.

5 common types of business email compromise attacks

There are five types of BEC attacks according to the method used in the attack. Let’s take a detailed look at them below.

1. CEO fraud

In a CEO fraud attack, scammers impersonate someone with executive authority within the company, such as the CEO or other C-suite executives with an official business email account. These two are the most prominent signals of a BEC attack: 

  1. A sudden, unexpected, and urgent request
  2. A scenario where you can’t verify the transaction with anyone else

CEO fraud takes advantage of the power dynamic within the company. Combined with social engineering tactics like urgency, scarcity, and specificity, that is frequently enough for attackers to persuade the target to do what they request.

A typical scenario for CEO fraud is when an attacker poses as a CEO and sends an urgent request for a transfer of funds to someone in the finance department.

The CEO could say they’re meeting with a vendor and discovered that the last payment didn’t go to their new account. The CEO might then request a junior-level accountant to pay right now so they can maintain a good relationship with the vendor. 

Another common play is posing as an executive and mentioning that they’d like to appreciate employees with gift cards. Then, they’d ask the target to help them purchase the gift cards using company funds but to keep it a secret because they want it to be a surprise.

2. Account compromise

With email account compromise or account takeover, attackers use a compromised account to launch their attack. Given that it comes from a legitimate email address, it won’t trigger any security notification from the target’s email security tools. Additionally, if it’s an email address the recipient is familiar with, they might let their guard down.

Attackers might launch this attack against a client and ask them to update the payment details they have on hand with a fraudulent bank account instead. 

A legitimate email account also makes it easier for hackers to internally request sensitive data, especially if the compromised account has high-security permission.

3. Attorney impersonation

As the name suggests, hackers impersonate the legal professionals you work with. People often panic when they hear about legal troubles, which might be why attorney impersonation works so well.

The target for attorney impersonation is low-level employees with no way to validate the request. The “legal” or administrative request usually comes at the end of the workday when recipients don’t have anyone to consult. And since it appears confidential and urgent, the unwitting employee obliges the request anyway.

4. Data theft

Instead of money, attackers in data theft aim for personal or sensitive information that can be used for future attacks. The main target for these attacks is often the HR and bookkeeping department, which collects and stores employees’ most sensitive personal data, such as social security numbers or tax IDs.

Fraudsters might use this to augment future attacks, but they’ll also likely sell this information on the dark web. Beware of identity theft if sensitive employee details are recently leaked this way.

5. False invoice scheme

Most often seen when working with foreign suppliers, this type of BEC attack involves attackers posing as a vendor to send a fake invoice with fraudulent account information attached. 

The attachment often doesn’t contain any malware either, so it won’t set off your anti-malware scans.

The supposed vendor might send this to your finance department, mentioning that they have moved to a new bank account and attaching the fraudulent bank details.

Phases in a business email compromise attack

Although there are not a lot of similarities between each type, the general steps attackers go through during a BEC scam are more or less the same.

Here’s how a hacker might carry out BEC. Don’t worry—we’ll get into steps to protect yourself next.

1. Email account targeting and research

Most experienced hackers invest a significant portion of their resources into identifying their target and then conducting thorough research about the company.

Beyond public info available on the internet, like social media posts, press releases, or the news, hackers will try to find more confidential business information about the company in mind.

This kind of reconnaissance includes familiarizing themselves with some of the following: 

  • Specific business processes
  • Workflows involved in different employees’ day-to-day responsibilities
  • Who is responsible for making payments
  • Details about payments made to vendors (schedules, banks, etc.)

2. Commencing the cyberattack

After gathering enough information, fraudsters decide whom they will attack and what believable scenario they will craft to ensure the best chance of success. 

They decide on the method they’re going to use and prepare accordingly. They’ll start to: 

  • Craft phishing emails
  • Gain access to the email address they’re going to use
  • Eventually, start sending the personalized, specific phishing email to the target

3. Social engineering

At this stage, fraudsters start doing what they do best—persuading the target and earning their trust. 

Hackers are already halfway there by impersonating trusted figures and using various social engineering techniques. At this point, they’ll try to get the target to do the task they want and prevent them from checking with another person that might recognize this as a scam.

4. Data breach

This is the end goal for most hackers.

After successfully convincing the target, this is where fraudsters essentially “collect” and where you might realize you’ve fallen victim to an attack.

The reward for hackers might be financial gain, such as a transfer of funds, but it can also be a data breach that leaks private information to the hacker. In this case, they’d be able to use this data for future attacks, distribute them, or, again, sell them.

What to do if you’re a victim: Ideally, hackers shouldn’t reach this stage, and you’d be able to protect against any data loss. However, if they did, immediately call your bank and see if you can dismiss the funds transfer. Additionally, file a complaint with the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) to ensure the incident has been recorded so it can be investigated.

How to prevent BEC attacks

Protecting against BEC attacks requires a combination of technical measures and employee awareness. Here are some steps you can take to safeguard your organization:

  1. Email Authentication: Implement email authentication protocols such as SPF, DKIM, and DMARC (Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance) to verify the authenticity of incoming emails and prevent email spoofing.
  2. Employee Education and Awareness: Conduct regular security awareness training to educate employees about BEC attacks, phishing techniques, and social engineering tactics.
  3. Strong Passwords and Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): Enable multi-factor authentication or two-factor authentication (2FA) for email accounts and other systems to add an extra layer of security.
  4. Secure Processes: Establish strict procedures for authorizing and verifying financial transactions, especially large payments or changes to payment details.
  5. Security Monitoring: Deploy advanced email security solutions that can detect and filter out suspicious emails, including those associated with BEC attacks.
  6. Incident Response: Establish an incident response plan to guide employees on how to report and handle suspected BEC attacks promptly.

As BEC emails rarely contain malware, it’s hard to detect these types of phishing scams if you rely on endpoint security solutions alone.

The key in a BEC scam is that there’s usually a sense of urgency built into the messages, and it doesn’t allow you to follow up with the people involved in the process.

For emails with markers like these, you should trust your gut and ask yourself: Does the email request make sense? Did you expect the email?

Protect against BEC and scams with Valimail

BEC emails will fail regardless of the hacker’s social engineering skills if the email never reaches your inbox in the first place.

This is where DMARC can help.

Having DMARC enforcement for your domain helps your employees identify spoofed emails sent on behalf of your domain. If you’re looking for the most cost-effective way to reach DMARC enforcement without overloading your IT team with more requests, Valimail Monitor can get you up and running quickly.

Try it for free today.